International Institute of Refrigeration
Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies
International Conference
- Ohrid 2023 -

About the Conference

The climate change is a global issue with catastrophic consequences which remind us almost every day. There are alarming projections of GHG emissions including HFCs. In Europe the Regulation No 517/2014 on F-gases has been introduced with many restrictions and gradually phase-down. A new revision is underway in 2023. The 28 Meeting of the Parties (in 2016) adopted an amendment to the Montreal Protocol for gradually phase-down of HFCs (from 2019 to 2047) to achieve 85% reduction. Recently, new HFC refrigerants (named HFOs) with low GWPs are appeared on the market. However, in July 2021, five European member states published their intention to submit a joint proposal for restriction of PFAS, including HFC and HFO refrigerants.

The choice of refrigerant (and technology) has become a very complicated issue. In the RAC industry, confusion and uncertainties related to working fluids in many applications are continuing. In addition, there are many groups with diverging interests: chemical companies, manufacturers of equipment, distributors, users, environmental organizations, politicians and the public.

After several conversions CFCs -> HCFCs -> HFCs -> HFOs(?), the global trend towards using natural refrigerants is intensifying. There are very positive signals in Europe and some parts in the world where expanding use of ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons in various applications is occurring. We will eliminate all uncertainties in the future regarding both Protocols and environmental regulations applying to natural refrigerants.

Of all refrigerants applied today, ammonia and CO2 are the oldest that have been used since the 19th century. The topics of the conference are: design of modern ammonia and new CO2 systems and technological innovations, improving energy efficiency, various applications, technical guidelines and safety regulations. It is very clear: by using more ammonia and CO2 refrigerants, we are employing environmentally friendly technologies.

The previous nine conferences were very successful, so we look forward to the 10th Conference on Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies. Use the opportunity to see the beautiful city of Ohrid and Ohrid Lake!

Organizers: - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering - Skopje - International Institute of Refrigeration

Programme Sponsors: - European Association for Ammonia Refrigeration - International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration

Other useful websites: - ASHRAE (USA) - Association Francaise du Froid - DKV (Germany) - Institute of Refrigeration (UK) - Royal Dutch Association of Refrigeration (The Netherlands) - Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Airconditioning and Heating - Chinese Association of Refrigeration - Japan Society of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Engineers